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Organization and conduct a natural experiment to study the wave dynamics in the eastern offshore. Sakhalin

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 Public safety and preservation of complex industrial infrastructure along the coast and the ocean shelf, as well as reducing the risk of adverse impacts on the marine environment in emergency situations on offshore oil platforms, closely related to the study of nonlinear dynamics of waves in the coastal zone. The experimental data are thus of great value in relation to the increasing demands for precision estimates of mean and extreme values of various parameters of hydro and the need for verification and refinement of mathematical models of wave processes. A collaboration of research teams of "Applied Mathematics" Nizhny Novgorod State Technical University (NSTU) and the Laboratory of wave dynamics and coastal currents of the Institute of Marine Geology and Geophysics (IMGG), Far East Branch, subject to many years of experience studying the nonlinear wave dynamics and conduct field experiments in the Pacific [1 - 5, 7 - 12, 14 - 17], it was decided to conduct a joint experiment, the purpose of which relate to the study of wave dynamics of the shelf area in general and, in particular, marine hazards on the shelf, the analysis of low-frequency (with periods ranging from minutes to hours ) sea-level fluctuations, registration processes due to topographical capture wave energy. In addition, the full-scale data obtained will be used for development and testing of a deterministic forecast model of nonlinear boundary waves.

The experiment was conducted in June - August 2006 in The island on the eastern coast of Sakhalin Island in the hospital IMGG "Ostromysovka." Previously, there was measured by bottom cable stations in order to study the transformation of wind waves and swell in the coastal zone [5, 8].

Карта места проведения эксперимента


Map location of the experiment

Waves used for registration bottom hydrostatic pressure sensors - standalone recorders excitement (ARV) whose placing and collecting meteorological data were performed by specialists NSTU. IMGG squad carried posing bottom cable station (BS).
This is followed by a description of means, methods of the experiment and some preliminary results of data processing. offline recorder excitement consists of quartz (piezoresonance) pressure transducer and temperature , board-recorder and battery, placed in a cylindrical stainless steel housing (see Fig. 1). ARVs were made LLC "KvartsSens" Mr. Uglich.
ART is a new unique equipment developed by the light of experience creating similar devices [6]. The main advantage over existing domestic appliances is that the record of the information produced in solid-state mass memory. As a result of ART can be set for the long term, that you can fix the non-periodic ocean processes, such as the arrival of killer waves, trapped waves and other anomalies. Moreover, such a registration system is more reliable than magnetic media, the input data to the PC from which almost always occurs with failures and partial data loss.

 Рис. 1. Автономный регистратор волненения АРВ-К10

 Fig. 1. Standalone recorder volneneniya K10 ARV 

High discrete measurement (1) ART allows you to register the waves in a wide range of periods - from wind to tidal. Moreover, devices have a low cost - much cheaper imported counterparts, such as the company SeaBird.
The choice of quartz pressure transducers and temperature is not accidental - because of the high sensitivity and accuracy, lower noise level, pressure and temperature sensors based on quartz sensors are increasingly being used in marine studies [7, 8, 13]. Furthermore, the use of such probes (frequency output) to simplify the scheme registrar and reduce the total power consumption of the device, eliminating the ADC [6].
Fee-recorder includes Counter, 48 MB of memory semiconductor, electronic clock and controlled by a microcontroller to support data exchange and time synchronization with a PC via a COM or USB.
As the battery is possible to use 12 V battery, in this case to use sealed batteries Delta DT1260 capacity of 60 Ah, tapes or lithium-ion batteries the size of D.
Experiments have shown that ARVs are reliable, low maintenance and easy-to-use devices.
Bottom cable stations for registration of long-wave processes in the ocean, in IMGG developed over the years. Their design is described in detail in [6]. Here we note that the DCS is also used piezoresonance pressure sensor. Information in the form of frequency-modulated signal is transmitted to shore by armored cable with a length of up to 10 km. Cable is connected to the board counter-timers, such as Advantech PCI-1780, installed on the PC at a fixed observation. On the PC decodes the frequency of the pressure. In the present experiment for the first time instead of the board counter-timers used four-frequency connected to the laptop via USB port.
Let us dwell on the organization of the experiment. One of the objectives of the experiment was to obtain field data necessary for the verification of mathematical models of nonlinear boundary waves [1, 2, 4, 9, 10, 15]. In connection with this site was selected with the topography of the shelf like a gentle slope (angle ~ 1 °) on the eastern coast of Sakhalin Island near The island (see map location of the experiment). Since it is known that the maximum amplitude of the edge waves are in the coastal zone, and the distance from the shore, their amplitude decreases [9, 15] proposed a scheme setting of sensors, in which the minimum number of sensors are fixed in as many wave-length range (see Figure . 2).
Nineteen ARVs were installed at depths of 15 to 35 meters, and the neighbors were on ARVs within 1.3 km. from the shore, and the most seaward - 3.5 km. The closest one isobath ARV defended by 70 meters of each other, the most remote - 3 km. For the study of waves in shallow water was installed DCS (at a depth of 2.5 meters). Throughout the experiment were collected weather data in increments of 1 per minute.

Рис. 2. Общая схема постановки регистраторов волнения


  Fig. 2. The general scheme of setting registers emotion  

ART attached to a special metal frame - anchor. Frame construction anchors showed his best side on the sandy bottom - managed to avoid movements during recorders and mechanical damage during lifting. The total weight of the battery pack with ARVs and the frame - the anchor of 80 kg and 65 kg of air in the water. To find and lift sensor design was equipped with a buoy floating on the surface, attached to the sensor cable. Practice shows that for shallow shelf zone (50 m) is the most economically viable solution. The coordinates of the performances were recorded in two GPS navigators Garmin. Of the 19 established RIA, was able to raise 16. Three registrar could not be found, due to strong bottom currents in the set, because of which the buoy rope peretersya of ARVs and the coordinates of the set, recorded in the GPS, do not coincide with the actual position of the sensor (see Fig. 3).

Рис. 3. Карта района проведения эксперимента

 Fig. 3. Map of the area of the experiment  

A separate objective of the experiment was to build detailed bathymetry staging area sensors necessary for the selection of locations to install the DVR, and for modeling of wave processes on the computer. Used to measure the depth sounder HUMMINBIRD Matrix 47 in conjunction with GPS Garmin 72. Data used for the GIS ArcView 3.3. The use of GIS has greatly simplify the processing of heterogeneous data from different navigation devices, to facilitate the preparation of operational data needed to conduct the experiment. Is a scientific expedition base hospital "Ostromysovka" IMGG. It provides services to ARVs weather station has been installed, the system will collect data from the DCS. By notebook SAMSUNG X20, running in a continuous mode, were connected weather station Heavyweather 3600 (RS-232) and frequency (via USB) to record data from the DCS. Power is supplied from a 12V battery that is charged by the generator periodically ELEMAX 2300DX. Sufficiently low power laptop battery in the presence of the notebook makes this decision more reliable and cost-effective than conventional PCs. Thus, in the experiment received 17 continuous records of bottom pressure and bottom temperature of 16 records the duration of 25 days at 1 s, the records of atmospheric pressure, temperature, wind speed and direction over the same period. Currently being processed and analyzed the information. As the results of the experiment, despite the significant benefits of ARVs in terms of mobility and autonomy, BCS worked well for working in close proximity to the coast, the transmission of data in real time allows for real-time monitoring of wave dynamics, eliminates the problem of loss of information due to loss registrar. The most promising is a holistic approach, using ART and ABAC in a single experiment. The authors thank A. Polyakov and B. Tretyakov for constructive cooperation, and AZ Kovalev, BA Alexeyev and other employees of LLC "Nivaagroprodukt" without which this experiment would have been impossible.
The work was supported by RFBR (06-05-64087) and the school of corresponding member. RAS BV Levine SS-8043.2006.2.


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